Get started with a JTree

These sample codes will just teach you how to create a simple JTree, without worrying about how the tree is displayed. For detailed information about this, look at the other examples in this category.

DefaultMutableTreeNode

You create the simpliest JTree by constructing the hierarchy using the class DefaultMutableTreeNode. With its add method, children (of type DefaultMutableTreeNode) can be added. A child can have children as well.

Then, pass the root element to a JTree instance.

This simple example shows you how to.

Main.java:

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
import javax.swing.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
 
public class Main extends JFrame
{
   public Main() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = createNodes();
      JTree tree = new JTree(root);
 
      getContentPane().add(new JScrollPane(tree));
 
      addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
         public void windowClosing(WindowEvent we) {
            System.exit(0);
         }
      });
   }
 
   public static DefaultMutableTreeNode createNodes() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Java");
      
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2se = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2SE");
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2ee = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2EE");
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2me = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2ME");
 
      j2se.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2se/"));
      j2ee.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2ee/"));
      j2me.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2me/"));
 
      root.add(j2se);
      root.add(j2ee);
      root.add(j2me);
 
      return root;
   }
 
   public static void main(String []args) {
      Main main = new Main();
      main.setSize(400, 400);
      main.setVisible(true);
   }
}

Extending TreeModel

But if you already have an existing tree-based model, you want to use it directly (and not create a mirror that is a set of DefaultMutableTreeNodes). This way, your view stays in sync with your existing model.

You can reuse your tree-based datastructure by creating your own class that implements TreeModel as shown in the following example. The custom datastructure Category contains the data and a CategoryTreeModel passes it on to the view.

Category.java:

import java.util.*;
 
public class Category
{
   private String name;
   private Vector subCategories = new Vector();
   private Vector links = new Vector();
 
   public Category(String name) {
      this.name = name;
   }
 
   public void addSubCategory(Category category) {
      subCategories.addElement(category);
   }
 
   public void addLink(String link) {
      links.addElement(link);
   }
 
   public Vector getSubCategories() {
      return subCategories;
   }
 
   public Vector getLinks() {
      return links;
   } 
 
   public String toString() {
      return name;
   }
}

CategoryTree.java:

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
 
public class CategoryTree extends JTree {
    CategoryTreeModel model;
 
    public CategoryTree(Category category) {
        super(new CategoryTreeModel(category));
    }
}

CategoryTreeModel.java:

import javax.swing.event.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
import java.util.*;
 
public class CategoryTreeModel implements TreeModel {
   private Category rootCategory;
   private Vector listeners = new Vector();
 
   public CategoryTreeModel(Category rootCategory) {
      this.rootCategory = rootCategory;
   }
 
   public Object getChild(Object parent, int index) {
      Category category = (Category) parent;
  
      // if the index falls in the subcategories vector
      if (index < category.getSubCategories().size()) {
         return category.getSubCategories().elementAt(index);
      }
 
      // else if the index falls in the links vector
      index -= category.getSubCategories().size();
      return category.getLinks().elementAt(index);
   }
 
   public int getChildCount(Object parent) {
      Category category = (Category) parent;
 
      return category.getSubCategories().size() +
             category.getLinks().size();
   }
 
   public int getIndexOfChild(Object parent, Object child) {
      Category category = (Category) parent;
 
      if (child instanceof Category) {
         return category.getSubCategories().indexOf(child);
      }
      else {
         return category.getLinks().indexOf(child);
      }
   }
 
   public Object getRoot() {
      return rootCategory;
   }
 
   public boolean isLeaf(Object node) {
      return node instanceof String;
   }
 
   public void addTreeModelListener(TreeModelListener l) {
      listeners.addElement(l);
   } 
 
   public void removeTreeModelListener(TreeModelListener l) {
      listeners.removeElement(l);
   }
 
   public void valueForPathChanged(TreePath path, Object newValue) {
      System.out.println("Value for path changed, " + newValue);
   }  
}

Main.java:

import java.net.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
  
public class Main extends JFrame
{
   public Main() {
      Category category = createCategory();
 
      CategoryTree tree = new CategoryTree(category);
  
      getContentPane().add(new JScrollPane(tree));
  
      addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
         public void windowClosing(WindowEvent we) {
            System.exit(0);
         }
      });
   }
 
   public static Category createCategory() {
      Category category = new Category("Java");
 
      Category j2se = new Category("j2se");
      j2se.addLink("http://java.sun.com/j2se/");
 
      Category j2ee = new Category("j2ee");
      j2ee.addLink("http://java.sun.com/j2ee/");
 
      Category j2me = new Category("j2me");
      j2me.addLink("http://java.sun.com/j2me/");
 
      category.addSubCategory(j2se);
      category.addSubCategory(j2ee);
      category.addSubCategory(j2me);
 
      return category;
   }
 
   public static void main(String []args) {
      Main main = new Main();
      main.setSize(400, 400);
      main.setVisible(true);
   }
}

Changing the icons of a JTree

Just use the methods setOpenIcon, setClosedIcon and setLeafIcon defined in the DefaultCellRenderer class.

Here’s an example.

Main.java:

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
import javax.swing.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
 
public class Main extends JFrame
{
   public Main() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Root");
      DefaultMutableTreeNode child1 = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Child 1");
      root.add(child1);
      DefaultMutableTreeNode child2 = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Child 2");
      root.add(child2);
      JTree tree = new JTree(root);
 
      DefaultTreeCellRenderer cr = new DefaultTreeCellRenderer();
      cr.setOpenIcon(new ImageIcon("openicon.jpg"));
      cr.setClosedIcon(new ImageIcon("closedicon.jpg"));
      cr.setLeafIcon(new ImageIcon("leaficon.jpg"));
  
      tree.setCellRenderer(cr);
 
      getContentPane().add(new JScrollPane(tree));
 
      addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
         public void windowClosing(WindowEvent we) {
            System.exit(0);
         }
      });
   }
 
   public static void main(String []args) {
      Main main = new Main();
      main.setSize(400, 400);
      main.setVisible(true);
   }
}

The icons used in this program:


Displaying a popup menu when right-clicking on a JTree node

Main.java:

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
import javax.swing.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
 
public class Main extends JFrame
{
   public Main() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = createNodes();
      JTree tree = new JTree(root);
 
      final TreePopup treePopup = new TreePopup(tree);
      tree.addMouseListener(new MouseAdapter() {
         public void mouseReleased (MouseEvent e) {
            if (e.isPopupTrigger()) {
               treePopup.show(e.getComponent(), e.getX(), e.getY());
            }
         }
      });
  
      getContentPane().add(new JScrollPane(tree));
 
      addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
         public void windowClosing(WindowEvent we) {
            System.exit(0);
         }
      });
   }
 
   public static DefaultMutableTreeNode createNodes() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Java");
      
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2se = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2SE");
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2ee = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2EE");
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2me = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2ME");
 
      j2se.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2se/"));
      j2ee.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2ee/"));
      j2me.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2me/"));
 
      root.add(j2se);
      root.add(j2ee);
      root.add(j2me);
 
      return root;
   }
 
   public static void main(String []args) {
      Main main = new Main();
      main.setSize(400, 400);
      main.setVisible(true);
   }
}
 
class TreePopup extends JPopupMenu {
   public TreePopup(JTree tree) {
      JMenuItem itemDelete = new JMenuItem("Delete");
      JMenuItem itemAdd = new JMenuItem("Add");
      itemDelete.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
         public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae) {
            System.out.println("Delete child");
         }
      });
      itemAdd.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
         public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae) {
            System.out.println("Add child");
         }
      });
 
      add(itemDelete);
      add(new JSeparator());
      add(itemAdd);
   }
}

Getting an event when a selection on my JTree changes

Implement a TreeSelectionListener and add it using addTreeSelectionListener.

Main.java:

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
import javax.swing.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
 
public class Main extends JFrame
{
   public Main() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = createNodes();
      JTree tree = new JTree(root);
 
      tree.addTreeSelectionListener(new TreeSelectionListener() {
         public void valueChanged(TreeSelectionEvent e) {         
            TreePath path = e.getPath();
            System.out.println(path.getLastPathComponent());     
         }
      });
 
      getContentPane().add(new JScrollPane(tree));
 
      addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
         public void windowClosing(WindowEvent we) {
            System.exit(0);
         }
      });
   }
 
   public static DefaultMutableTreeNode createNodes() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Java");
      
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2se = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2SE");
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2ee = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2EE");
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2me = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2ME");
 
      j2se.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2se/"));
      j2ee.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2ee/"));
      j2me.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2me/"));
 
      root.add(j2se);
      root.add(j2ee);
      root.add(j2me);
 
      return root;
   }
 
   public static void main(String []args) {
      Main main = new Main();
      main.setSize(400, 400);
      main.setVisible(true);
   }
}

Adding a background image to a JTree

Main.java:

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
import javax.swing.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
 
public class Main extends JFrame
{
   public Main() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Root");
      for (int i=0; i<10; i++) {
         DefaultMutableTreeNode child = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Child " + (i+1));
         root.add(child);
      }
      JTree tree = new JTree(root) {
         ImageIcon icon = new ImageIcon("mong.jpg");
 
         public void paint( Graphics g ) 
         { 
            // tile it
            Dimension d = this.getSize(); 
            for(int i=0; i<d.width; i+=icon.getIconWidth()) { 
               for(int j=0; j<d.height; j+=icon.getIconHeight()) { 
                  g.drawImage(icon.getImage(), i, j, null, null); 
               }
            }
 
            super.paint(g); 
         } 
      }; 
 
      tree.setOpaque( false );
  
 
      DefaultTreeCellRenderer cr = new DefaultTreeCellRenderer();
      cr.setOpaque(false);
      cr.setBackground(new Color(0, 0, 0, 0));  
      cr.setBackgroundNonSelectionColor(null);
      tree.setCellRenderer(cr);
 
      getContentPane().add(new JScrollPane(tree));
 
      addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
         public void windowClosing(WindowEvent we) {
            System.exit(0);
         }
      });
   }
 
   public static void main(String []args) {
      Main main = new Main();
      main.setSize(400, 400);
      main.setVisible(true);
   }
}

Image used: http://www.esus.com/images/mong.jpg

Adding a background image to a JTree that does not scroll

(1.3+)

Main.java:

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
import javax.swing.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
 
public class Main extends JFrame
{
   public Main() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Root");
      for (int i=0; i<100; i++) {
         DefaultMutableTreeNode child = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Child " + (i+1));
         root.add(child);
      }
      JTree tree = new JTree(root);
 
      tree.setOpaque( false );
  
 
      DefaultTreeCellRenderer cr = new DefaultTreeCellRenderer();
      cr.setOpaque(false);
      cr.setBackground(new Color(0, 0, 0, 0));  
      cr.setBackgroundNonSelectionColor(null);
      tree.setCellRenderer(cr);
 
      ImageJScrollPane scrollpane = new ImageJScrollPane(tree);
      scrollpane.setBackgroundImage(new ImageIcon("mong.jpg"));
 
      getContentPane().add(scrollpane);
 
      addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
         public void windowClosing(WindowEvent we) {
            System.exit(0);
         }
      });
   }
 
   public static void main(String []args) {
      Main main = new Main();
      main.setSize(400, 400);
      main.setVisible(true);
   }
}
 
class ImageJScrollPane extends JScrollPane
{
   private ImageIcon image = null;
 
   public ImageJScrollPane() {
      this(null, VERTICAL_SCROLLBAR_AS_NEEDED, HORIZONTAL_SCROLLBAR_AS_NEEDED);
   }
 
   public ImageJScrollPane(Component view) {
      this(view, VERTICAL_SCROLLBAR_AS_NEEDED, HORIZONTAL_SCROLLBAR_AS_NEEDED);
   }
 
   public ImageJScrollPane(Component view, int vsbPolicy, int hsbPolicy) {
      super(view, vsbPolicy, hsbPolicy);
      if (view instanceof JComponent) {
         ((JComponent) view).setOpaque(false);
      }
      setOpaque(false);
      getViewport().setOpaque(false);
      getViewport().setScrollMode(JViewport.BLIT_SCROLL_MODE);
   }
 
   public ImageJScrollPane(int vsbPolicy, int hsbPolicy) {
      this(null, vsbPolicy, hsbPolicy);
   }
 
   public void setBackgroundImage(ImageIcon image) {
      this.image = image;
   }
 
   public void paint(Graphics g) {
      if (image != null) {
         Rectangle rect = getViewport().getViewRect();
         for (int x=0; x<rect.width; x+=image.getIconWidth()) {
            for (int y=0; y<rect.height; y+=image.getIconHeight()) {
               g.drawImage(image.getImage(), x, y, null, null);
            }
         }
         super.paint(g);
      }
 
   }
}

Image used:

Creating a JTree without node icons

Set the OpenIcon, ClosedIcon and LeafIcon to null in a DefaultTreeCellRenderer.

Main.java:

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
import javax.swing.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
 
public class Main extends JFrame
{
   public Main() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = createNodes();
      JTree tree = new JTree(root);
 
      DefaultTreeCellRenderer cr = new DefaultTreeCellRenderer();
      cr.setOpenIcon(null);
      cr.setClosedIcon(null);
      cr.setLeafIcon(null);
  
      tree.setCellRenderer(cr);
 
      getContentPane().add(new JScrollPane(tree));
 
      addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
         public void windowClosing(WindowEvent we) {
            System.exit(0);
         }
      });
   }
 
   public static DefaultMutableTreeNode createNodes() {
      DefaultMutableTreeNode root = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("Java");
      
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2se = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2SE");
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2ee = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2EE");
      DefaultMutableTreeNode j2me = new DefaultMutableTreeNode("J2ME");
 
      j2se.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2se/"));
      j2ee.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2ee/"));
      j2me.add(new DefaultMutableTreeNode("http://java.sun.com/j2me/"));
 
      root.add(j2se);
      root.add(j2ee);
      root.add(j2me);
 
      return root;
   }
 
   public static void main(String []args) {
      Main main = new Main();
      main.setSize(400, 400);
      main.setVisible(true);
   }
}

Have dotted lines in a JTree

That appends on your Look & Feel – you can use three lineStyle’s:

// show hierarchy-lines
JTree#putClientProperty(“JTree.lineStyle”, “Angled”);

// show horizontal lines
JTree#putClientProperty( “JTree.lineStyle”, “Horitontal” );

// do not show any lines
JTree#putClientProperty(“JTree.lineStyle”, “None”);

Example of TreeTable

The example program about TreeTable discussed in Sun’s article Creating TreeTables: Part 2 adds unnecessary complexity. The following is a much simpler one and will get you started much quicker.

Prerequisite: Download src.zip from the above url and compile the with both programs presented here.

Main.java:

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.border.*;
import javax.swing.event.*;
import javax.swing.table.*;
import javax.swing.tree.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.text.NumberFormat;
 
public class Main extends JFrame {
   protected MyTreeTableModel  model;
   protected JTreeTable        treeTable;
 
   public Main() {
      super("Main");
 
      addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
         public void windowClosing(WindowEvent we) {
            System.exit(0);
         }
      });
 
      model     = new MyTreeTableModel();
      treeTable = new JTreeTable(model);
 
      getContentPane().add(new JScrollPane(treeTable));
 
      try {
         UIManager.setLookAndFeel("com.sun.java.swing.plaf.windows.WindowsLookAndFeel");
         SwingUtilities.updateComponentTreeUI(this);
      }
      catch(Exception e) {
         e.printStackTrace();
      }
 
      pack();
      show();
   }
 
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      new Main();
   }
}

MyTreeTableModel.java:

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.File;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Stack;
import javax.swing.SwingUtilities;
import javax.swing.tree.TreePath;
import java.util.*;
 
public class MyTreeTableModel extends AbstractTreeTableModel {
 
   // Names of the columns.
   static protected String[] cNames = {"Column 1", "Column 2", 
                                       "Column 3", "Column 4"};
   // Types of the columns.
   static protected Class[]  cTypes = { TreeTableModel.class, String.class, 
                                        String.class, String.class };
   static Entry rootEntry;  
 
   /******** Entry class represents the parent and leaf nodes **********/
   static class Entry {
      private String name; 
      private boolean isLeaf;
      private Vector children = new Vector();
 
      public Entry(String name, boolean isLeaf) {
         this.name = name;
         this.isLeaf = isLeaf;
      }
 
      public Vector getChildren() {
         return children;
      }
 
      public boolean isLeaf() {
         return isLeaf;
      }
 
      public String getName() {
         return name;
      }
 
      public String toString() {
         return name;
      }
   }
 
   static {
      rootEntry = new Entry("rootentry", false);
      rootEntry.getChildren().addElement(new Entry("test1", true));
      rootEntry.getChildren().addElement(new Entry("test2", true));

      Entry subEntry1 = new Entry("subentry1", false);
      subEntry1.getChildren().addElement(new Entry("test3", true));
      subEntry1.getChildren().addElement(new Entry("test4", true));
      Entry subEntry2 = new Entry("subentry2", false);
      subEntry2.getChildren().addElement(new Entry("test5", true));
      subEntry2.getChildren().addElement(new Entry("test6", true));
      rootEntry.getChildren().addElement(subEntry1);
      rootEntry.getChildren().addElement(subEntry2); 
   }
   /*************************************/
 
   public MyTreeTableModel() { 
      super(rootEntry);
   }
 
   public int getChildCount(Object node) { 
      if (!((Entry) node).isLeaf()) {
         return ((Entry) node).getChildren().size();
      }
      return 0;
   }
 
   public Object getChild(Object node, int i) { 
      return ((Entry) node).getChildren().elementAt(i);
   }
 
   public boolean isLeaf(Object node) {
      return ((Entry) node).isLeaf();
   }
 
   public int getColumnCount() {
      return cNames.length;
   }
 
   public String getColumnName(int column) {
      return cNames[column];
   } 
 
   public Class getColumnClass(int column) {
      return cTypes[column];
   }
 
   public Object getValueAt(Object node, int column) {
      switch(column) {
         case 0:
            return node;
         case 1:
            return "value1";
         case 2:
            return "value2";
         case 3:
            return "value3";
      }
   
      return null; 
   }
}